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    L'Albania è una Nazione balcanica che si affaccia sul Mar Adriatico ad ovest, è in buona parte montuosa e collinare, tranne aree pianeggianti nella fascia costiera.

    A causa della lunga dittatura comunista che ha tenuto l'Albania chiusa al mondo esterno fino al 1985 il Paese non è al livello economico del resto d'Europa, anche se sta cercando di adeguarsi progressivamente.

    Albania declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1912, but was conquered by Italy in 1939. Communist partisans took over the country in 1944. Albania allied itself first with the USSR (until 1960), and then with China (to 1978). In the early 1990s, Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997; however, there have been claims of electoral fraud in every one of Albania's post-communist elections. The 2009 general elections resulted in no single party gaining a majority of the 140 seats in Parliament, and the Movement for Socialist Integration (LSI) and the Democratic Party (DP) combined to form a coalition government, the first such in Albania's history. The Socialist Party (SP) contested the results of the 2009 parliamentary elections and the 2011 local elections. Albania joined NATO in April 2009 and is a potential candidate for EU accession. Although Albania's economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure.


    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Kosovo to the north
    Geographic coordinates:

    41 00 N, 20 00 E
    Map references:

    total: 28,748 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 145
    land: 27,398 sq km
    water: 1,350 sq km

    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Maryland

    Land boundaries:
    total: 717 km
    border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Kosovo 112 km

    362 km

    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation

    mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

    mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

    Natural resources:
    petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

    Land use:
    arable land: 20.1%
    permanent crops: 4.21%
    other: 75.69% (2005)
    rrigated land:
    3,650 sq km (2003)
    otal renewable water resources:
    41.7 cu km (2001)

    Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
    total: 1.71 cu km/yr (27%/11%/62%)
    per capita: 546 cu m/yr (2000)

    Natural hazards:
    destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought

    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    Geography - note:
    strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

    noun: Albanian(s)
    adjective: Albanian

    Ethnic groups:
    Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
    note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

    Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects

    Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
    note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

    3,002,859 (July 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 21.4% (male 337,364/female 303,669)
    15-64 years: 68.1% (male 996,666/female 1,043,472)
    65 years and over: 10.5% (male 148,151/female 165,345) (2011 est.)

    Median age:
    total: 30.9 years
    male: 29.6 years
    female: 32.1 years (2012 est.)

    Population growth rate:
    0.28% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167

    Birth rate:
    12.38 births/1,000 population (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157

    Death rate:
    6.25 deaths/1,000 population (July 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157

    Net migration rate:
    -3.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178

    urban population: 52% of total population (2010)
    rate of urbanization: 2.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

    Major cities - population:
    TIRANA (capital) 433,000 (2009)

    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
    under 15 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

    Maternal mortality rate:
    27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 127

    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 14.12 deaths/1,000 live births
    country comparison to the world: 124
    male: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 12.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.)

    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 77.59 years
    country comparison to the world: 61
    male: 74.99 years
    female: 80.49 years (2012 est.)

    Total fertility rate:
    1.48 children born/woman (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190

    Health expenditures:
    6.9% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 85

    Physicians density:
    1.146 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

    Hospital bed density:
    2.92 beds/1,000 population (2007)

    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

    HIV/AIDS - deaths:

    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    6.6% (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 75

    Education expenditures:

    definition: age 9 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.7%
    male: 99.2%
    female: 98.3% (2001 census)

    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2004)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 35.5%
    country comparison to the world: 10
    male: 41.6%
    female: 27.1% (2001)

    Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Albania
    conventional short form: Albania
    local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
    local short form: Shqiperia
    former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy

    name: Tirana (Tirane)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    Administrative divisions:
    37 municipalities (komunat/opstine, singular - komuna/opstina); Decan/Decani, Dragash/Dragas, Ferizaj/Urosevac, Fushe Kosove/Kosovo Polje, Gjakove/Dakovica, Gjilan/Gnjilane, Gllogovc/Glogovac, Gracanice/Gracanica, Hani i Elezit/Deneral Jankovic, Istog/Istok, Junik, Kacanik/Kacanik, Kamenice/Kamenica, Kline/Klina, Kllokot/Klokot, Leposaviq/Leposavic, Lipjan/Lipljan, Malisheve/Malisevo, Mamushe/Mamusa, Mitrovice/Mitrovica, Novoberde/Novo Brdo, Obiliq/Obilic, Partesh/Partes, Peje/Pec, Podujeve/Podujevo, Prishtine/Pristina, Prizren, Rahovec/Orahovac, Ranillug/Ranilug, Shterpce/Strpce, Shtime/Stimlje, Skenderaj/Srbica, Suhareke/Suva Reka, Viti/Vitina, Vushtrri/Vucitrn, Zubin Potok, Zvecan/Zvecan

    28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)

    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 28 November (1912) also known as Flag Day

    approved by parliament 21 October 1998; adopted by popular referendum 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998

    Legal system:
    civil law system except in the northern rural areas where customary law known as the "Code of Leke" prevails

    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

    18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President of the Republic Bujar NISHANI (since 24 July 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
    (For more information visit the World Leaders website )
    elections: president elected by three-fifths the Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 30 May and 11 June 2012 (next election to be held in 2017); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Bujar NISHANI elected president on fourth round of voting; Assembly vote (for first three rounds three-fifths majority, 84 votes, required; fourth round, a simple majority of votes is required): Bujar NISHANI 73 votes; note - NISHANI will take office 24 July 2012

    Legislative branch:

    unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 deputies; 100 deputies elected directly in single member electoral zones with an approximate number of voters; 40 deputies elected from multi-name lists of parties or party coalitions according to their respective order; elected for a 4-year term)
    elections: last held on 28 June 2009 (next to be held in 2013)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 68, PS 65, LSI 4, other 3

    Judicial branch:

    Constitutional Court consists of 9 members appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly who serve 9-year terms (chairman is elected by the People's Assembly for a four-year term); the High Court members appointed by the president with the consent of the Assembly for a 9-year term; note - there are also courts of appeal and courts of first instance

    Political parties and leaders:

    Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; New Democracy Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party for Justice and Integration or PDI [Shpetim IDRIZ]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party or PDS [Paskel MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Unity for Human Rights Party or PBDNJ [Vangjel DULE]

    Political pressure groups and leaders:

    Red and Black Alliance [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Elton KACIDHJA]; Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
    International organization participation:

    Diplomatic representation in the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Gilbert GALANXHI
    chancery: S1312 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
    FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342
    consulate(s) general: New York

    Diplomatic representation from the US:

    chief of mission: Ambassador Alexander ARVIZU
    embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
    mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
    telephone: [355] (4) 2247285
    FAX: [355] (4) 2232222

    Flag description:

    red with a black two-headed eagle in the center; the design is claimed to be that of 15th-century hero George Castriota SKANDERBEG, who led a successful uprising against the Turks that resulted in a short-lived independence for some Albanian regions (1443-78); an unsubstantiated explanation for the eagle symbol is the tradition that Albanians see themselves as descendants of the eagle; they refer to themselves as "Shkypetars," which translates as "sons of the eagle"

    National symbol(s):

    double-headed eagle

    Economy - overview:

    Albania, a formerly closed, centrally-planned state, is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. Macroeconomic growth averaged around 6% between 2004-08, but declined to about 3% in 2009-11. Inflation is low and stable. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and recently adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. Remittances, a significant catalyst for economic growth declined from 12-15% of GDP before the 2008 financial crisis to 8% of GDP in 2010, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy. The agricultural sector, which accounts for almost half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited primarily to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages because of a reliance on hydropower - 98% of the electrical power produced in Albania - and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albania's poor business environment and lack of success in attracting new foreign investment needed to expand the country's export base. FDI is among the lowest in the region, but the government has embarked on an ambitious program to improve the business climate through fiscal and legislative reforms. The completion of a new thermal power plant near Vlore has helped diversify generation capacity, and plans to upgrade transmission lines between Albania and Montenegro and Kosovo would help relieve the energy shortages. Also, with help from EU funds, the government is taking steps to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. The country will continue to face challenges from increasing public debt, approaching its statutory limit of 60% of GDP. Strong trade, remittance, and banking sector ties with Greece and Italy make Albania vulnerable to spillover effects of the global financial crisis.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):

    $25.23 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $24.74 billion (2010 est.)
    $23.9 billion (2009 est.)
    note: data are in 2011 US dollars
    Albania has an informal, and unreported, sector that may be as large as 50% of official GDP
    GDP (official exchange rate):

    $12.85 billion (2011 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:

    2% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    3.5% (2010 est.)
    3.3% (2009 est.)
    GDP - per capita (PPP):

    $7,800 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    $7,700 (2010 est.)
    $7,500 (2009 est.)
    note: data are in 2011 US dollars
    GDP - composition by sector:

    agriculture: 20.7%
    industry: 19.7%
    services: 59.6% (2011 est.)
    Labor force:

    1.053 million (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Labor force - by occupation:

    agriculture: 47.8%
    industry: 23%
    services: 29.2% (September 2010 est.)
    Unemployment rate:

    13.3% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    13.7% (2010 est.)
    note: these are official rates, but actual rates may exceed 30% due to preponderance of near-subsistence farming
    Population below poverty line:

    12.5% (2008 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:

    lowest 10%: 3.5%
    highest 10%: 29% (2008)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:

    34.5 (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    26.7 (2005)
    Investment (gross fixed):

    29.9% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20

    revenues: $3.289 billion
    expenditures: $3.738 billion (2011 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:

    25.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

    -3.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Public debt:

    59.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    57.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):

    3.5% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    3.6% (2010 est.)
    Central bank discount rate:

    5% (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    5.25% (31 December 2009 est.)
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:

    12.43% (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    12.833% (31 December 2010 est.)
    Stock of narrow money:

    $3.024 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    $2.648 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Stock of broad money:

    $9.951 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    $5.813 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Stock of domestic credit:

    $9.208 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    $7.953 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    Agriculture - products:

    wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

    food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower
    Industrial production growth rate:

    3% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Electricity - production:

    5.201 billion kWh (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Electricity - consumption:

    6.593 billion kWh
    country comparison to the world: 101
    note: 35% of electricity is lost in the system as a result of transmission inefficiencies and theft (2009 est.)
    Electricity - exports:

    0 kWh (2009 est.)
    Electricity - imports:

    1.884 billion kWh (2009 est.)
    Oil - production:

    10,930 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Oil - consumption:

    33,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Oil - exports:

    1,004 bbl/day (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Oil - imports:

    22,880 bbl/day (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Oil - proved reserves:

    199.1 million bbl (1 January 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Natural gas - production:

    30 million cu m (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - consumption:

    30 million cu m (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Natural gas - exports:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - imports:

    0 cu m (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Natural gas - proved reserves:

    849.5 million cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Current account balance:

    -$1.595 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    -$1.404 billion (2010 est.)

    $1.954 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    $1.548 billion (2010 est.)
    Exports - commodities:

    textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco
    Exports - partners:

    Italy 48.8%, China 8.4%, Turkey 6.7%, Greece 5.6%, Spain 5.4%, India 4.9% (2010 est.)

    $5.076 billion (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    $4.305 billion (2010 est.)
    Imports - commodities:

    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals
    Imports - partners:

    Italy 34.8%, Greece 12.9%, China 6.2%, Turkey 6%, Germany 4.6% (2010 est.)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

    $2.665 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    $2.541 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Debt - external:

    $5.7 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    $5 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    Exchange rates:

    leke (ALL) per US dollar -
    100.89 (2011 est.)
    103.94 (2010 est.)
    94.98 (2009)
    79.546 (2008)
    92.668 (2007)
    Fiscal year:

    calendar year

    Telephones - main lines in use:

    338,800 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Telephones - mobile cellular:

    3.1 million (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Telephone system:

    general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines teledensity remains low with roughly 10 fixed lines per 100 people; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
    domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; by 2011 multiple companies were providing mobile services and mobile teledensity had reached 100 per 100 persons; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005 but growth has been slow; Internet cafes are popular in Tirana and have started to spread outside the capital
    international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2011)
    Broadcast media:

    3 public TV networks, one of which transmits by satellite to Albanian-language communities in neighboring countries; more than 60 private TV stations; many viewers can pick up Italian and Greek TV broadcasts via terrestrial reception; cable TV service is available; 2 public radio networks and roughly 25 private radio stations; several international broadcasters are available (2010)
    Internet country code:

    Internet hosts:

    15,505 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Internet users:

    1.3 million (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 91


    5 (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Airports - with paved runways:

    total: 4
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2012)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:

    total: 1
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2012)

    1 (2012)

    gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2010)

    total: 339 km
    country comparison to the world: 117
    standard gauge: 339 km 1.435-m gauge (2009)

    total: 18,000 km
    country comparison to the world: 116
    paved: 7,020 km
    unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

    41 km (on the Bojana River) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Merchant marine:

    total: 17
    country comparison to the world: 99
    by type: cargo 16, roll on/roll off 1
    foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
    registered in other countries: 5 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Panama 4) (2010)
    Ports and terminals:

    Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

    Military branches:

    Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command, Training and Doctrine Command (2010)
    Military service age and obligation:

    19 years of age (2004)
    Manpower available for military service:

    males age 16-49: 731,111
    females age 16-49: 780,216 (2010 est.)
    Manpower fit for military service:

    males age 16-49: 622,379
    females age 16-49: 660,715 (2010 est.)
    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

    male: 31,986
    female: 29,533 (2010 est.)
    Military expenditures:

    1.49% of GDP (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99

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